The simplest method is to first use a standard web-browser (e.g. on a laptop), query the archive, select the data to download and then choose the "download script" option from the ALMA Request Handler. This script can then be copied to the machine that does not have graphical capabilities and the data downloaded to that machine.
The second option is to use the external tool astroquery for querying and downloading data from the ALMA archive using python.
We offer extensive help on how to query and access ALMA data programmatically through our Jupyter Notebooks.